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Doctor Poxy 3. Ideas erróneas respecto al exceso de humedad

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PROBLEMA: Ideas erróneas respecto al exceso de humedad .

CAUSA: Método inadecuado para la determinación de la humedad en el concreto y/o la falta de aplicación de una barrera de humedad.

DIAGNÓSTICO: Problemas en la instalación de adhesivos o recubrimientos sobre el concreto por el exceso de humedad.

SOLUCIÓN: Utilizar un método adecuado de medición de humedad.

Primer Error:

Suponer que por estar seca la superficie, toda la losa lo estará. Esto sucede porque la superficie que se encuentra en contacto con el aire permite la evaporación de la humedad por diferentes variables como serían movimiento del aire sobre la superficie, temperatura ambiente, humedad relativa del lugar y método de allanado del concreto, entre otros. Esta evaporación superficial provoca movimiento de humedad desde el fondo de la losa hacia la superficie, donde pudiera estar la fuente de humedad; sin embargo se ha demostrado que el observar seca la superficie no es un indicativo de un bajo contenido total de humedad en la losa , por lo que se recomienda siempre medir la humedad relativa colocando sensores internamente en la losa a una profundidad correcta y al menos en 5 puntos de toda la superficie a recubrir.

Segundo Error:

Pensar que todos los productos para pisos poseen tolerancia similar a alta concentración de humedad, hay que estar conscientes que actualmente hay una gran variedad de productos con diferentes características químicas, y que por ello presentarán diferentes tolerancias a la humedad, por lo que se requiere asegurar una superficie seca antes de aplicar cualquier producto, como lo especifican los fabricantes para así poder ofrecer garantías o en su defecto aplicar nuestra Primer para humedad epóxico. Por lo que es fundamental una correcta determinación de la humedad relativa en el concreto para confirmar que dicho nivel puede ser tolerado por el producto que se pretende aplicar o en su defecto seleccionar un producto que si soporte los niveles de humedad medidos en el área y así evitar problemas futuros de instalación. Para determinar dicha compatibilidad consulte siempre la carta técnica de los fabricantes.

Tercer Error:

Suponer que por tratarse de un concreto viejo se tendrá la garantía de que este estará completamente seco, hay que considerar que aún una losa en servicio por varios años puede contener un nivel alto de humedad. Se ha dado el caso que aún remplazando una losa vieja por una nueva el problema de humedad persiste , pues puede existir una fuente constante no identificada de humedad en la base de la losa, como podría ser una tubería rota, que incrementa el contenido de humedad y que puede no hacer evidente a simple vista la presencia de niveles elevados de humedad; por otra parte los productos disponibles en el mercado actualmente que son de alto desempeño son más susceptibles a la humedad que lo que fueron productos similares en el pasado. Por lo que nuevamente se vuelve imprescindible una correcta determinación de humedad.

Cuarto Error:

Suponer que una losa con pendientes no tendrá niveles altos de humedad por lo que se recomieda realizar la determinación a una profundidad de por lo menos del 20% del espesor y en una losa sin pendiente se determine la humedad a una profundidad del 40% de su espesor.

Quinto Error:

Realizar una medición de humedad solo a nivel de la superficie del concreto, como hemos comentado no es garantía de una buena medición y la posibilidad de problemas posteriores persistiría.

Hay tres métodos para determinación de humedad:

1) Prueba de cloruro de calcio, que es un desecante que absorbe la humedad emitida por la superficie de la losa, se determina la ganancia en peso de este material al ponerse en contacto con él concreto, esto no se relaciona con la cantidad remanente en el resto de la losa, desafortunadamente no es una prueba científica confiable aunque económica y fácil de realizar.

2) El método Hood con el cual se coloca una probeta o sensor sobre la superficie del concreto, esta determinación presenta los mismos inconvenientes que la prueba de cloruro, solo que la medición se realiza directo en un dial del instrumento y de forma instantánea.

3) Medidores de humedad que al igual que el método Hood dan lecturas directo a un dial, envían una señal eléctrica que mide la resistencia eléctrica del concreto y este es un indicador del nivel de humedad en la losa, operan típicamente a una profundidad máxima de ¾“, pero esta profundidad muchas veces no es suficiente.

Dado que muchas veces la distribución de la humedad no es homogénea en toda la losa, el método más confiable es colocar probetas a diferentes profundidades y en diferentes zonas que se dejan por un determinado tiempo hasta que se alcanza el equilibrio dentro de la probeta y entonces se realiza la determinación, siendo este método el más confiable y caro pero que proporciona la lectura más precisa que permite tomar una mejor decisión del tratamiento más adecuado al concreto en cuestión.

Los niveles de humedad en una losa que está en proceso de secado (durante el curado) presenta un mayor nivel de humedad en el fondo, y al pasar de los días dicha humedad tenderá a buscar el equilibrio, moviéndose a través de la losa, pero una vez que la losa se sella con un recubrimiento o adhesivo para piso, buscará escapar lo cual generará muchos problemas, por lo que cualquier método que no mida la humedad debajo de la superficie de la losa no nos dará una información completa de la humedad real existente. Un método muy seguro para evitar problemas futuros sino se cuenta con un instrumento adecuado para determinar correctamente la humedad es prevenirlo mediante la aplicación de una Primer para humedad epóxico.

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